Lindsey Criswell, MD, MPH


The focus of my research program is the genetics and epidemiology of human autoimmune disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). My research unit has devoted substantial effort to the performance of genome wide association (GWA) and other genetics studies, which have led to the identification of over 30 genes that contribute to risk and outcome of these disorders. This work has also highlighted key biologic pathways responsible for disease onset and progression, which can inform more basic research to define the mechanism of these genetic associations. Given the heterogeneity of these disorders, we are also devoting substantial effort to the refinement of genotype-phenotype associations, such as the specificity of genetic associations for serologic or clinical subphenotypes. Several genes we have been studying, including STAT4 and TNFAIP3, are also of interest due to emerging evidence supporting their association with multiple autoimmune disorders and phenotypes. Given the strong association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region with multiple autoimmune disorders, we are performing fine mapping studies of this region in order to further define the complex genetic associations of this region with SLE, RA and related phenotypes. We are also pursuing studies designed to better understand ethnic differences in autoimmune disease risk and outcome. Lastly, we have initiated several recent studies that seek to define the contribution of epigenetic factors, particularly DNA methylation patterns, to autoimmune disease risk and outcome.
2019 - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California
Post-Doc Fellow/Scholar, 1992 - Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
M.D., 1986 - Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Residency, - Medicine, University of California, San Francisco
Honors and Awards
  • Jean S. Engleman Distinguished Professor of Rheumatology, UCSF, 2012
  • Kenneth H. Fye, M.D., Endowed Chair in Rheumatology, UCSF, 2008-2011
  • Kirkland Scholar Award, Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Research, 2006-2008
  • Henry Kunkel Young Investigator Award, American College of Rheumatology, 2003
  1. Author Correction: Multiplexed droplet single-cell RNA-sequencing using natural genetic variation.
  2. Major Depression and Adverse Patient-Reported Outcomes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Results from the California Lupus Epidemiology Study.
  3. The impact of limited health literacy on patient-reported outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  4. Ocular Clinical Signs and Diagnostic Tests Most Compatible With Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: A Latent Class Approach.
  5. Quality of Care for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Lupus Nephritis Across Multiple Healthcare Settings.
  6. Complement genes contribute sex-biased vulnerability in diverse disorders.
  7. Relationships Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health Status in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
  8. Author Correction: A phenotypic and genomics approach in a multi-ethnic cohort to subtype systemic lupus erythematosus.
  9. HLA and autoantibodies define scleroderma subtypes and risk in African and European Americans and suggest a role for molecular mimicry.
  10. Psychometric evaluation of the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS® ) in a multi-racial, multi-ethnic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohort.
  11. Landscape of stimulation-responsive chromatin across diverse human immune cells.
  12. A phenotypic and genomics approach in a multi-ethnic cohort to subtype systemic lupus erythematosus.
  13. Cell-type-specific resolution epigenetics without the need for cell sorting or single-cell biology.
  14. Association of response to TNF inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis with quantitative trait loci for CD40 and CD39.
  15. Mother-child histocompatibility and risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus among mothers.
  16. Genetic fine mapping of systemic lupus erythematosus MHC associations in Europeans and African Americans.
  17. Increased alloreactive and autoreactive antihuman leucocyte antigen antibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  18. Brief Report: Whole-Exome Sequencing to Identify Rare Variants and Gene Networks That Increase Susceptibility to Scleroderma in African Americans.
  19. DNA methylation 101: what is important to know about DNA methylation and its role in SLE risk and disease heterogeneity.
  20. Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.
  21. A plausibly causal functional lupus-associated risk variant in the STAT1-STAT4 locus.
  22. Genetic contributions to lupus nephritis in a multi-ethnic cohort of systemic lupus erythematous patients.
  23. How Are Ocular Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye Associated With Depression in Women With and Without Sjögren Syndrome?
  24. Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.
  25. Novel gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
  26. Hypomethylation of CYP2E1 and DUSP22 Promoters Associated With Disease Activity and Erosive Disease Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.
  27. Natural History and Predictors of Progression to Sjögren's Syndrome Among Participants of the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Registry.
  28. Multiplexed droplet single-cell RNA-sequencing using natural genetic variation.
  29. Clinical and serological features of systemic sclerosis in a multicenter African American cohort: Analysis of the genome research in African American scleroderma patients clinical database.
  30. Genomewide association study of HLA alloimmunization in previously pregnant blood donors.
  31. Health-related quality of life and depression among participants in the Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance registry.
  32. Role of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with Sjögren syndrome.
  33. Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  34. Genome-Wide Association Analysis Reveals Genetic Heterogeneity of Sjögren's Syndrome According to Ancestry.
  35. Reply.
  36. Increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis among mothers with children who carry DRB1 risk-associated alleles.
  37. Alterations in the Salivary Proteome and N-Glycome of Sjögren's Syndrome Patients.
  38. Rheumatoid Arthritis Naive T Cells Share Hypermethylation Sites With Synoviocytes.
  39. Genome-wide profiling identifies associations between lupus nephritis and differential methylation of genes regulating tissue hypoxia and type 1 interferon responses.
  40. Epigenetic Signatures of Salivary Gland Inflammation in Sjögren's Syndrome.
  41. 2016 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Classification Criteria for Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Consensus and Data-Driven Methodology Involving Three International Patient Cohorts.
  42. 2016 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for primary Sjögren's syndrome: A consensus and data-driven methodology involving three international patient cohorts.
  43. Erratum: Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.
  44. Association of Dry Eye Tests With Extraocular Signs Among 3514 Participants in the Sjögren's Syndrome International Registry.
  45. Brief Report: Whole-Exome Sequencing for Identification of Potential Causal Variants for Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis.
  46. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.
  47. A Child's HLA-DRB1 genotype increases maternal risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.
  48. Identification of a Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk Locus Spanning ATG16L2, FCHSD2, and P2RY2 in Koreans.
  49. Genome-Wide Association Study in an Amerindian Ancestry Population Reveals Novel Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk Loci and the Role of European Admixture.
  50. Decreased SMG7 expression associates with lupus-risk variants and elevated antinuclear antibody production.
  51. Hypomethylation within gene promoter regions and type 1 diabetes in discordant monozygotic twins.
  52. Genetic associations of leptin-related polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  53. Germline variation of TNFAIP3 in primary Sjögren's syndrome-associated lymphoma.
  54. Molecular Subsetting of Interferon Pathways in Sjögren's Syndrome.
  55. Increase in Dickkopf-1 Serum Level in Recent Spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR Cohort.
  56. Genome-Wide Assessment of Differential DNA Methylation Associated with Autoantibody Production in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
  57. Lupus Risk Variant Increases pSTAT1 Binding and Decreases ETS1 Expression.
  58. Genetic contribution of DKK-1 polymorphisms to RA structural severity and DKK-1 level of expression.
  59. The SSB-positive/SSA-negative antibody profile is not associated with key phenotypic features of Sjögren's syndrome.
  60. Interactions between patients, providers, and health systems and technical quality of care.
  61. Recent advances in the genetics of systemic sclerosis: toward biological and clinical significance.
  62. Lupus risk variants in the PXK locus alter B-cell receptor internalization.
  63. The IRF5-TNPO3 association with systemic lupus erythematosus has two components that other autoimmune disorders variably share.
  64. Preferential association of a functional variant in complement receptor 2 with antibodies to double-stranded DNA.
  65. A polymorphism in TLR2 is associated with arterial thrombosis in a multiethnic population of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  66. Lupus nephritis susceptibility loci in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  67. Two functional lupus-associated BLK promoter variants control cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific transcription.
  68. Genetic, genomic and epigenetic studies as tools for elucidating disease pathogenesis in primary Sjögren's syndrome.
  69. End-stage renal disease in African Americans with lupus nephritis is associated with APOL1.
  70. Differentiation of follicular helper T cells by salivary gland epithelial cells in primary Sjögren's syndrome.
  71. Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
  72. Germline and somatic genetic variations of TNFAIP3 in lymphoma complicating primary Sjogren's syndrome.
  73. Preferential binding to Elk-1 by SLE-associated IL10 risk allele upregulates IL10 expression.
  74. Non-lymphoma hematological malignancies in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  75. ABIN1 dysfunction as a genetic basis for lupus nephritis.
  76. PTPN22 association in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with respect to individual ancestry and clinical sub-phenotypes.
  77. NCR3/NKp30 contributes to pathogenesis in primary Sjogren's syndrome.
  78. Trans-ancestral studies fine map the SLE-susceptibility locus TNFSF4.
  79. Variable association of reactive intermediate genes with systemic lupus erythematosus in populations with different African ancestry.
  80. TDP-43 frontotemporal lobar degeneration and autoimmune disease.
  81. Genome-wide association study and gene expression analysis identifies CD84 as a predictor of response to etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.
  82. MicroRNA-3148 modulates allelic expression of toll-like receptor 7 variant associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  83. Admixture mapping in lupus identifies multiple functional variants within IFIH1 associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and autoantibody production.
  84. Cancer risk in systemic lupus: an updated international multi-centre cohort study.
  85. Lymphoma risk in systemic lupus: effects of disease activity versus treatment.
  86. Brief Report: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in VKORC1 are risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus in Asians.
  87. Sex differences in assessment of obesity in rheumatoid arthritis.
  88. Genes identified in Asian SLE GWASs are also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations.
  89. Genome-wide association analysis of anti-TNF drug response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  90. Association of two independent functional risk haplotypes in TNIP1 with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  91. Impact of genetic ancestry and sociodemographic status on the clinical expression of systemic lupus erythematosus in American Indian-European populations.
  92. Unraveling multiple MHC gene associations with systemic lupus erythematosus: model choice indicates a role for HLA alleles and non-HLA genes in Europeans.
  93. CSK regulatory polymorphism is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and influences B-cell signaling and activation.
  94. European genetic ancestry is associated with a decreased risk of lupus nephritis.
  95. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  96. Fine mapping of Xq28: both MECP2 and IRAK1 contribute to risk for systemic lupus erythematosus in multiple ancestral groups.
  97. Hydroxychloroquine is associated with impaired interferon-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  98. Genetic risk factors for thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  99. Quality of care in systemic lupus erythematosus: application of quality measures to understand gaps in care.
  100. Variation in the ICAM1-ICAM4-ICAM5 locus is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility in multiple ancestries.
  101. Physical activity, obesity, and cognitive impairment among women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  102. Identification of IRF8, TMEM39A, and IKZF3-ZPBP2 as susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus in a large-scale multiracial replication study.
  103. Validity of brief screening tools for cognitive impairment in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
  104. Evidence for gene-gene epistatic interactions among susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus.
  105. Longitudinal study of the impact of incident organ manifestations and increased disease activity on work loss among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  106. Emerging patterns of genetic overlap across autoimmune disorders.
  107. Primary Sjögren's syndrome as a systemic disease: a study of participants enrolled in an international Sjögren's syndrome registry.
  108. Evaluation of TRAF6 in a large multiancestral lupus cohort.
  109. A comprehensive analysis of shared loci between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and sixteen autoimmune diseases reveals limited genetic overlap.
  110. Analysis of autosomal genes reveals gene-sex interactions and higher total genetic risk in men with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  111. Association of NCF2, IKZF1, IRF8, IFIH1, and TYK2 with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  112. Expression of A20 by dendritic cells preserves immune homeostasis and prevents colitis and spondyloarthritis.
  113. Impact of obesity on functioning among women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  114. Recommendations for publication of genetic association studies in Arthritis & Rheumatism.
  115. Association of PPP2CA polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility in multiple ethnic groups.
  116. Brief index of lupus damage: a patient-reported measure of damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  117. Associations between salivary gland histopathologic diagnoses and phenotypic features of Sjögren's syndrome among 1,726 registry participants.
  118. Genetic analyses of interferon pathway-related genes reveal multiple new loci associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  119. Phenotypic associations of genetic susceptibility loci in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  120. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale to screen for depression in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  121. Association of genetic variants in complement factor H and factor H-related genes with systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility.
  122. Cardiovascular and disease-related predictors of depression in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  123. Differential genetic associations for systemic lupus erythematosus based on anti-dsDNA autoantibody production.
  124. Association of a functional variant downstream of TNFAIP3 with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  125. Risk alleles for systemic lupus erythematosus in a large case-control collection and associations with clinical subphenotypes.
  126. Obesity and its measurement in a community-based sample of women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  127. Identification of a systemic lupus erythematosus susceptibility locus at 11p13 between PDHX and CD44 in a multiethnic study.
  128. A candidate gene study of the type I interferon pathway implicates IKBKE and IL8 as risk loci for SLE.
  129. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis: influence of an interaction between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope and a deletion polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase in a cross-sectional study.
  130. Childhood-onset disease as a predictor of mortality in an adult cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  131. Rheumatoid arthritis risk allele PTPRC is also associated with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy.
  132. Analysis of maternal-offspring HLA compatibility, parent-of-origin effects, and noninherited maternal antigen effects for HLA-DRB1 in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  133. Role of community and individual characteristics in physician visits for persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  134. Provision of preventive health care in systemic lupus erythematosus: data from a large observational cohort study.
  135. Genome-wide association study meta-analysis identifies seven new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.
  136. Recent advances in the genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus.
  137. Frequent use of the emergency department among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  138. Genetics research in systemic lupus erythematosus for clinicians: methodology, progress, and controversies.
  139. Gene discovery in rheumatoid arthritis highlights the CD40/NF-kappaB signaling pathway in disease pathogenesis.
  140. Conditional analysis of the major histocompatibility complex in rheumatoid arthritis.
  141. Data for Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Problem 1, association analysis of rheumatoid arthritis data.
  142. Tumour necrosis factor alpha -308G->A polymorphism is not associated with response to TNFalpha blockers in Caucasian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  143. Systematic review and metaanalysis of patient self-report versus trained assessor joint counts in rheumatoid arthritis.
  144. Genetic variants at CD28, PRDM1 and CD2/CD58 are associated with rheumatoid arthritis risk.
  145. High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions.
  146. A large-scale replication study identifies TNIP1, PRDM1, JAZF1, UHRF1BP1 and IL10 as risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus.
  147. European population substructure is associated with mucocutaneous manifestations and autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  148. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  149. REL, encoding a member of the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors, is a newly defined risk locus for rheumatoid arthritis.
  150. An early view of the international Sjögren's syndrome registry.
  151. Kallikrein genes are associated with lupus and glomerular basement membrane-specific antibody-induced nephritis in mice and humans.
  152. Genome-wide association study of determinants of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody titer in adults with rheumatoid arthritis.
  153. Depression, medication adherence, and service utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  154. Work loss and work entry among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus: comparisons with a national matched sample.
  155. Differences in long-term disease activity and treatment of adult patients with childhood- and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.
  156. The chromosome 7q region association with rheumatoid arthritis in females in a British population is not replicated in a North American case-control series.
  157. Health care costs and costs associated with changes in work productivity among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  158. Common variants at CD40 and other loci confer risk of rheumatoid arthritis.
  159. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies across autoimmune diseases.
  160. Multiple polymorphisms in the TNFAIP3 region are independently associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  161. The role of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status in outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus.
  162. A large-scale rheumatoid arthritis genetic study identifies association at chromosome 9q33.2.
  163. The inflammatory disease-associated variants in IL12B and IL23R are not associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  164. Specificity of the STAT4 genetic association for severe disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.
  165. Several regions in the major histocompatibility complex confer risk for anti-CCP-antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis, independent of the DRB1 locus.
  166. Genetic variants that predict response to anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: current challenges and future directions.
  167. Admixed populations and autoimmunity.
  168. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus with C8orf13-BLK and ITGAM-ITGAX.
  169. Genome-wide association scan in women with systemic lupus erythematosus identifies susceptibility variants in ITGAM, PXK, KIAA1542 and other loci.
  170. The genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus.
  171. Data for Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 15 Problem 2, genetic causes of rheumatoid arthritis and associated traits.
  172. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism linkage analyses of quantitative rheumatoid arthritis phenotypes in Caucasian NARAC families.
  173. Impact of memory impairment on employment status in persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  174. PTPN22: its role in SLE and autoimmunity.
  175. STAT4 and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
  176. TRAF1-C5 as a risk locus for rheumatoid arthritis--a genomewide study.
  177. Clinical and genetic risk factors for pneumonia in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  178. Interaction between smoking, the shared epitope, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide: a mixed picture in three large North American rheumatoid arthritis cohorts.
  179. Association of socioeconomic and demographic factors with utilization of rheumatology subspecialty care in systemic lupus erythematosus.
  180. Medicaid and access to care among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  181. Impact of health maintenance organizations and fee-for-service on health care utilization among people with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  182. Three functional variants of IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) define risk and protective haplotypes for human lupus.
  183. Specific combinations of HLA-DR2 and DR3 class II haplotypes contribute graded risk for disease susceptibility and autoantibodies in human SLE.
  184. Work dynamics among persons with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  185. Dissecting the heterogeneity of rheumatoid arthritis through linkage analysis of quantitative traits.
  186. Influence of male sex on disease phenotype in familial rheumatoid arthritis.
  187. Recent advances in the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis.
  188. Value of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope for predicting radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis depends on the individual patient risk profile.
  189. Smoking interacts with genetic risk factors in the development of rheumatoid arthritis among older Caucasian women.
  190. The functional -169T-->C single-nucleotide polymorphism in FCRL3 is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in white North Americans.
  191. Regulation of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: contrasting effects of HLA-DR3 and the shared epitope alleles.
  192. Refining the complex rheumatoid arthritis phenotype based on specificity of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope for antibodies to citrullinated proteins.
  193. Examination of ancestry and ethnic affiliation using highly informative diallelic DNA markers: application to diverse and admixed populations and implications for clinical epidemiology and forensic medicine.
  194. PTPN22 genetic variation: evidence for multiple variants associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  195. Analysis of families in the multiple autoimmune disease genetics consortium (MADGC) collection: the PTPN22 620W allele associates with multiple autoimmune phenotypes.
  196. Particular HLA-DRB1 shared epitope genotypes are strongly associated with rheumatoid vasculitis.
  197. The influence of genetic variation in the HLA-DRB1 and LTA-TNF regions on the response to treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate or etanercept.
  198. A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism in a gene encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  199. Familial clustering of disease features: implications for the etiology and investigation of systemic autoimmune disease.
  200. Putative ancestral origins of chromosomal segments in individual african americans: implications for admixture mapping.
  201. Clustering of disease features within 512 multicase rheumatoid arthritis families.
  202. Lack of association of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope with rheumatoid nodules: an individual patient data meta-analysis of 3,272 Caucasian patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  203. Impact of shared epitope genotype and ethnicity on erosive disease: a meta-analysis of 3,240 rheumatoid arthritis patients.
  204. The systemic lupus erythematosus-associated PDCD1 polymorphism PD1.3A in lupus nephritis.
  205. Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study.
  206. Mexican American ancestry-informative markers: examination of population structure and marker characteristics in European Americans, Mexican Americans, Amerindians and Asians.
  207. Estrogen and other female reproductive risk factors are not strongly associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis in elderly women.
  208. Markers informative for ancestry demonstrate consistent megabase-length linkage disequilibrium in the African American population.
  209. Health related quality of life in women with elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis.
  210. Screening the genome for rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility genes: a replication study and combined analysis of 512 multicase families.
  211. Gender and racial differences in rates of total hip replacement.
  212. Antioxidant micronutrients and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a cohort of older women.
  213. Clinical usefulness of genetic information for predicting radiographic damage in rheumatoid arthritis.
  214. Markers that discriminate between European and African ancestry show limited variation within Africa.
  215. Dissecting the genetic complexity of the association between human leukocyte antigens and rheumatoid arthritis.
  216. Demographic differences in the development of lupus nephritis: a retrospective analysis.
  217. Cigarette smoking and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis among postmenopausal women: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study.
  218. Blood transfusion, alcohol use, and anthropometric risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis in older women.
  219. The shared epitope and severity of rheumatoid arthritis.
  220. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study.